Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam http://teosofi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi <p><strong>TEOSOFI: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam</strong>&nbsp; terbit 2 kali setahun pada bulan Juni dan Desember. Jurnal ini&nbsp; berisi kajian seputar tasawuf, pemikiran Islam, teologi, tafsir sufi, dan hadith sufi. Jurnal ini diterbitkan oleh Program Studi Filsafat Agama Fakultas Ushuluddin dan Filsafat Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya, terbit pertama kali pada bulan Juni 2011. Jurnal ini terakreditasi pada 03 Juli 2014 sesuai Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia Nomor 212/P/2014.</p> <p>Jurnal ini bisa diakses secara terbuka yang berarti bahwa semua konten yang tersedia bebas diakses tanpa biaya, baik kepada pengguna atau pada lembaganya. Pengguna yang diizinkan untuk membaca, mendownload, menyalin, mendistribusikan, mencetak, mencari, atau mensitasi ke teks lengkap dari artikel tidak harus meminta izin terlebih dahulu dari penerbit atau penulis.</p> Program Studi Filsafat Agama Fakultas Ushuluddin dan Filsafat UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya en-US Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 2088-7957 Tasawuf Tanpa Tarekat: Pengalaman Turki dan Indonesia http://teosofi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/154 <p>This article seeks to display a development of sufi without <em>t}</em><em>ar</em><em>îqah</em> in two countries, namely Turkey and Indonesia. In spite of the banning of sufi orders in Turkey, hitherto Sufism lingers in the Republic. Several sufi orders work in silent, but they do make contribution on the socio-political sphere of Turkey. On the other side, some Turkish sufi practitioners transform themselves into sufi without <em>ṭarîqah</em> as an adaptation to the secular state’s strict policy on religion, such those as Bediuzzaman Said Nursi dan Fethullah Gülen. In Indonesia, Sufism has arisen conspicuo-usly among the Salafi after for some times being lied down due to an accusation of being the source for backwardness of Muslim community. In turn, it is that sufi without <em>ṭ</em><em>arîqah</em> eventually take shape. Due to differing on socio-political condition and on intellectual debates of the both countries, the sufi without <em>ṭarîqah</em> leads to different ways in respective country. While Turkish sufi without <em>ṭarîqah</em> turn out to be a movement taking part in secular Turkey, sufi without <em>ṭarîqah</em> in Indonesia—particularly that of Salafi—tends to be a mode of self-entertaining for the sake of religious sensation.</p> Akhmad Rizqon Khamami ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-06-06 2016-06-06 6 1 1 28 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.1.1-28 Dualisme dalam Kesatuan untuk Mencapai Maʻrifah Perspektif KH. Asrori Ishaqi http://teosofi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/155 <p>The article reveals the concept of dualism in unity along with <em>ma</em><em>ʻrifah</em> in KH. Asrori Ishaqi’s perspective. This article finds that dualism in unity to reach <em>ma</em><em>ʻrifah</em> in Kiai Asrori’s perspective rests in his conception about God through what so-called <em>al-Ah}ad</em> and <em>al-Wâḥid</em> as well as <em>al-Wujûd </em>and <em>al-Kawn</em>. He emphasizes that there is no <em>al-Wujûd</em> (existence) but Allah’s. It is, therefore, all creatures’ existence is embraced within God’s existence. <em>Al-Kawn</em>—on the other side—is everything which exists and will exist, in which God has known them already and determined their fate. The concept of <em>al-Aḥad</em> emphasizes that Allah is All The One in His Essence in advance of His <em>Asmâ’</em> (Names) and Attributes. <em>Al-Wâḥid</em> means All The One in His <em>Asmâ’</em> and Attributes after the emanation of the two over His creatures. In accordance with human’s existence, Kiai Asrori states that humans are created from spiritual realm and the physical one. It seems that Kiai Asrori would emphasize that though Allah is The Almighty and unreachable, the humans can still—in another dimension—reach Him through the emanation of His <em>Asmâ’</em> with <em>murâqabah</em> using their reasons, understanding, and hearts. Kiai Asrori is an advocate to monistic Sufism and at the same time he also a proponent of dualistic Sufism.</p> Muhammad Rahmatullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 6 1 29 56 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.1.29-56 Landasan Ontologis dan Kualifikasi Makrifat Ibn ‘Atâ’ Allâh al-Sakandarî http://teosofi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/156 <p>Employing qualitative approach, this article examines ontological foundation and qualification of the concept of <em>ma‘rifah</em> promulgated by Ibn ‘Ata’ Allâh al-Sakandarî. The concept of <em>ma‘rifah</em> of Ibn ‘Atâ’ Allâh deals with two things. The first is the spiritual condition of Sufi (<em>the holy experience</em>), i.e. an existential experience of a Sufi. The second is Sufi’s expressions in the form of symbols, gestures, and <em>ta‘bîr</em> (an expression born from spiritual experience). Ibn ‘Atâ’ Allâh itemized the latter category into two different conditions, namely in-consciousness condition and ecstasy (unconsciousness condition). The study finds that his concept of <em>ma‘rifah</em> can be ontologically categorized into three forms, namely spiritual experience, reflection of spiritual experience, and discourse of <em>ma‘rifat Allâh</em>. Within spiritual experience, a <em>sâlik</em> is immersed in witnessing (<em>shuhûd</em>) of God. This is the highest condition of <em>ma‘rifah</em>. In reflection of spiritual experience, a Sufi spontaneously and unconsciously expresses his/her thoughts due to the lavishness of unrestrained spiritual flavors. The discourse of <em>ma‘rifat Allâh</em> takes a safe position in the perspective of ordinary people by tying the <em>ma‘rifah</em> with <em>sharî‘ah</em> and morality (<em>akhlâq</em>). Borrowing Mehdi Heiri Yazdi’s terms, these there form are called mysticism, the language of mysticism, and meta-mysticism.</p> Ghozi Ghozi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 6 1 57 91 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.1.57-91 “Tarekat Popoler” dalam Fenomena Pembacaan Selawat Nârîyah http://teosofi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/157 <p>The recitation of <em>Selawat</em> <em>Nârîyah</em>, as a religious ritual, performed by the Muslim community in Larangan Tokol Village, Pamekasan, East Java, has its own uniqueness within the process of its implementation and has an exceptional function from socio-religious-psychological point of view for its reciters. This article focuses its discussion mainly on the perception and motivation of the people in Larangan Tokol in recitation of <em>Selawat</em> <em>Nârîyah</em>. The article also observes the implication of recitation of <em>Selawat</em> <em>Nârîyah</em> for their socio-religious and psychological life. To Larangan Tokol people, <em>Selawat</em> <em>Nârîyah</em> has become a new religious tradition which should be maintained. It has been found that there is no such an obligation to adhere to certain Sufi order (<em>tarekat</em>) in order to perform the recitation of the <em>selawat</em>. However, there is a sort of psychological bond of <em>guru</em> (<em>murshid</em>) and <em>murîd </em>found in the membership (<em>koloman</em>) of recitation activity through what so-called <em>tawassul</em>. The <em>tawassul</em> is recited prior to the recitation of <em>Selawat</em> <em>Nârîyah</em>. The recitation of <em>Selawat</em> <em>Nârîyah</em> performed by Larangan Tokol people can be considered “a new genre of <em>tarekat</em>”. The writer tends to call it “Popular Tarekat” (an anonymous <em>tarekat</em>), i.e. an open Sufi order with no certain process of <em>bay‘ah</em> but it has unabridged narration (<em>sanad mutâwatir</em>) to the Prophet Muhammad.</p> Nor Hasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 6 1 92 116 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.1.92-116 Nafas Kesadaran dan Menghidupkan Spiritualitas Melalui Integrasi Tasawuf dan Psikologi http://teosofi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/158 <p>This article explains about an effort of livening up spirituality in one’s self based on religious understanding, namely through the doctrines and values of Sufism in order to get close to God (<em>taqarrub ilâ Allâh</em>). It aims to reach spiritual theistic using a method of “the Breath of Consciousness”. The method uses breath, i.e. inhaling and exhaling, as we usually do. The method consists of three important steps, are: breathing calmly, breathing deeply, and breathing gently. The key to the success of this method is consistent implementation (<em>istiqa}mah</em>) and simultaneous practice. “The Breath of Consciousness” should be done through seven sequential steps and stages, namely <em>breathing in consciousness</em>, <em>looking in consciousness</em>, <em>feeling in consciousness</em>, <em>moving in consciousness</em>, <em>walking in consciousness</em>, <em>speaking in consciousness</em>, and <em>presence in consciousness</em>. The expected contribution of the method is providing the society, especially the Muslim community, an easy technique to get close to God. Moreover, the method—when implemented correctly—will result in healthy body, pure mind, quiet soul, and peaceful heart. In doing so, the article aims to elaborate the integration of psychology and Sufism as an approach to the study of soul and consciousness.</p> M Iqbal Irham ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 6 1 117 138 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.1.117-138 Wali, Sultan, Kiai, dan Santri dalam Tadisi Agama dan Politik Islam Jawa http://teosofi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/159 <p>The article discusses the role of <em>wali</em> (the Muslim saints), sultan, <em>kiai</em>, and <em>santri</em> within religious tradition and politics in Java. The <em>wali</em> (commonly known as <em>Walisongo</em> or “the Nine Saints”) were people who initially spread Islam in Java. In their efforts to develop Islam, <em>Walisongo</em> also equipped their pupils with religious knowledge to spread Islam in the future. This is from such process the transfer of Islamic knowledge was primarily set off. Once the transition periods began, the role of <em>wali</em> had subsequently vanished and replaced by the formal ruler, namely sultan. The Mataram Sultanate was the biggest Islamic sultanate ever in the history of Java. Owing to the supremacy of the Sultan, Kiai Kasan Besari—as an ample example of <em>kiai</em> mentioned in this article—built a <em>pesantren</em> in an area called <em>tanah perdikan</em> (a tax haven) in Tegalsari Ponorogo, East Java, which became an origin of institutionalization of the <em>pesantren</em> in Java. The Sultan provided the <em>pesantren</em> both material aids and other kinds of support, including entrusting his sons to learn religious knowledge in it. It had been also followed by the royal courtiers and the best cadres of the sultanate who subsequently became litterateurs of the Kingdom.</p> Abdul Chalik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 6 1 139 167 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.1.139-167 Genealogi dan Corak Studi Kalâm di Indonesia http://teosofi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/160 <p>The discourse of <em>kalâm</em> (Islamic theology) in Indonesia has its long historical root. The discourse has initially emerged alongside the process of the spread of Islam in Indonesia. The dynamics of the discourse among various segments of the Indonesian Muslim society have found their rhythm from time to time. It should be noted, however, that the discourse has not yet found its genealogical pattern. This article, therefore, attempts to find the genealogical foundation and the pattern of studies of <em>kalâm</em> in Indonesia together with its trends. The developing reasoning of <em>kalâm</em> in the mediaeval periods of Islam, i.e. after the 12<sup>th</sup> century, tended to be strong in terms of its orthodoxy compare to the discourse itself. This subsequently becomes a source of inspiration for the discourse of <em>kalâm</em> in Indonesia until nowadays. As a result, there has been a sort of general trend that the study of <em>kalâm</em> in Indonesia has remained stagnant. It can be, among other, observed from the process of studying <em>kalâm</em> as knowledge reference, its development and formalization, and critique of the discourse, which indicate unprosperous condition for the discourse itself.</p> Zuhri Zuhri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 6 1 168 192 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.1.168-192 Kontestasi Pandangan Elite Agama di Gresik tentang Nyekar di Desa Surowiti Kecamatan Panceng http://teosofi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/161 <p><em>Nyekar</em> has become a pivotal tradition to certain groups of Javanese society as it has been believed to bring about success for every activity they do in their life. A number of public officials, for an instance, perform <em>nyekar</em> in order to sustain their strategic and profitable positions and to gain blessing. The article scrutinizes the opinions of religious elites in Gresik concerning <em>nyekar</em> in Surowiti Village, Panceng, Gresik, East Java. The study finds that there have been two existing opposing opinions held by the religious elites in relation to this tradition. The first group maintains that <em>nyekar</em> is allowed, while the second group argues that it is forbidden. Interestingly, each group supports their argume-nts using religious texts derived from al-Qur’ân and Hadîth. Regardless of disagreements among the religious elites vis-à-vis <em>nyekar</em>, the writer underlines that every religious elite should be wise in respond to such issue. It is important to educate their followers such prudent attitudes as respecting other and maintaining harmony in spite of different views they hold. It is also important to involve both theological understanding along with open, sincere, and democratic socio-historical views to create inclusive understanding of the tradition<em>.</em></p> Muchammad Toha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 6 1 193 219 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.1.193-219 Tren Pengembangan Ilmu di Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang http://teosofi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/162 <p>It has been over a decade, in which the journey of State Islamic University (UIN) Malang in developing new scientific paradigm has appeared to be quite successful, particularly in establishing and developing an “image” of Islamic-based sciences in their new forms. The success can be observed from, among other, people’s demand—from various segments of the society—to a number of books written by the lecturers of UIN Malang. Such tremendously remarkable achievement becomes certainly a worthy matter to observe and discuss, especially from the Philosophy of Science’s point of view concerning on how the pattern of scientific development—as a part of academic traditions—built by this Islamic higher educational institution. This article finds an important information that the development of science in UIN Malang has arrived upon the development of new theories and concepts, by placing al-Qur’ân and al-Sunnah as its main and fundamental foundations. It can be generally observed that there has been a sort of a pattern of “Quranic justification” to the sciences developed by UIN Malang. It means that any scientific activity is intended to prove the “scientificness” of al-Qur’ân. It has been also assumed, moreover, that al-Qur’ân is the book of science.</p> Mohammad Muslih ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 6 1 220 247 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.1.220-247 Filosofi Dakwah KH. Muhammad Khoiron Syu’aib di Lokalisasi Surabaya http://teosofi.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/163 <p>Kiai Khoiron is a unique figure who has conduct-ed an intensive <em>dakwah</em> (religious propaganda) at the localiza-tion of Surabaya. Through his exceptional method of <em>dakwah</em>, there have been many prostitutes and the pimps who have repented. Preaching in an unusual environment has certainly resulted in a particular phenomenon. This article intention-ally presents Kiai Khoiron’s method of <em>dakwah</em>. Employing descriptive-qualitative approach, the article explores the phenomenon of <em>dakwah</em> promulgated by Kiai Khoiron. It deals with approaches, characteristics, and typology of <em>dakwah</em> conducted by Kiai Khoiron to the residents of localization, prostitutes, and pimps. The findings of this study suggest that the approach of <em>dakwah</em> is centered upon the objects (<em>mad‘û</em>), i.e. the people of the localization. He seeks to change religious views held by the objects (<em>mad‘û</em>), not only at the level of understanding, but also their attitudes and behaviors. All the elements of propaganda delivered certainly conform to the conditions of the objects, either in the form of by-speech propaganda (<em>bi al-lisân</em>) or by-example preaching (<em>bi al-h</em><em>âl</em>). With reference to the materials and approaches of <em>dakwah</em> carried by Kiai Khoiron, it seems that he can be characterized as an adaptive, attentive, solution-giver, and humorous preacher.</p> Sunarto AS ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-06-03 2016-06-03 6 1 248 273 10.15642/teosofi.2016.6.1.248-273